James Leonard Farmer Jr. is an American civil rights activist and leader of the civil rights movement "who promoted nonviolent protests to erase discrimination and served with Martin Luther King Jr." He was the initiator and organized the first Freedom Ride in 1961, eventually leading to the separation of interstate transportation in the United States. In 1942, Farmer co-founded the Race Equality Commission in Chicago with George Houser, James R. Robinson, Samuel E. Riley, Bernice Fisher, Homer Jack, and Joe Guinn. He was later called the Congress for Racial Equality and dedicated himself to ending racism in the United States through nonviolence. Farmer was state president from 1942 to 1944. In the 1960s, Farmer was known as "one of the four civil rights leaders of the 1960s, along with King, NAACP director Roy Wilkins and Urban League leader Whitney Young."
|Born||James Leonard Farmer Jr, January 12, 1920, Marshall, Texas|
|Died||July 9, 1999, Fredericksburg, Virginia|
|Cause of death||Diabetes complications|
|Spouse(s)||Winnie Christie (1945–1946), Lula Peterson (1949–1977)|
|Parents||James L. Farmer Sr, Pearl Houston|
|Alma mater||Wiley College|
|Occupation||Civil rights activist|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Floyd McKissick|
American civil rights activist who led the Freedom Riders. He also helped establish the Congress of Racial Equality.
A child prodigy, he began attending Wiley College at the age of fourteen. He went on to earn an additional degree from the Howard University Divinity School.
In the mid-1980s, he published a memoir entitled Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement.
He was briefly married to Winnie Christie. With his second wife, Lula Peterson, he had two daughters.
He and Diane Judith Nash , fellow leaders in the Civil Rights Movement, were both Freedom Riders (African-American activists who took seats on buses headed to the segregated Southern states).
- New York Liberal Party politicians
- Alumni of Wiley College
- Freestyle runner
- Members of the American Democratic Socialist Party
- 20th Century African American Activists TM_VZ! American socialists
- The recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Latest information about James L Farmer Jr. updated on June 14 2021.