Max Born

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Date of Birth December 11, 1882
Place of Birth Germany
Date of Death Jan 5, 1970 (87)
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Max Born

Max Born was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function". Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians Felix Klein, David Hilbert, and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom.

Born: December 11, 1882, Breslau, German Empire, (now Wrocław, Poland)
Died: January 5, 1970, Göttingen, West Germany (now Germany)
Resting place: Stadtfriedhof Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
Residence: Göttingen, West Germany
Citizenship: German, British
Fields: Theoretical physics
Institutions: University of Frankfurt am Main, University of Göttingen, University of Edinburgh, University of Cambridge
Alma mater: University of Göttingen
Thesis: Untersuchungen über die Stabilität der elastischen Linie in Ebene und Raum unter verschiedenen Grenzbedingungen ("Investigations on the stability of the elastic line in plane and space under different boundary conditions") (1906)
Other academic advisors: Woldemar Voigt, Karl Schwarzschild, Joseph Larmor, J. J. Thomson
Doctoral students: Mary Bradburn, Kaijia Cheng, Max Delbrück, Walter Elsasser, Siegfried Flügge, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Herbert S. Green, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Edgar Krahn, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Huanwu Peng, Maurice Pryce, Bertha Swirles, Victor Frederick Weisskopf, Liming Yang
Other notable students: Enrico Fermi, Huang Kun, Emil Wolf
Known for: Born–Haber cycle, Born rigidity, Born coordinates, Born approximation, Born series, Born probability, Born–Infeld theory, Born–Oppenheimer approximation, Born rule, Born–Landé equation, Born–Huang approximation, Born–von Karman boundary condition, Born equation, Adiabatic theorem, Canonical commutation relation
Notable awards: Nobel Prize in Physics (1954), Hughes Medal (1950), Max Planck Medal (1948), Fellow of the Royal Society (1939)
Spouse: Hedwig (Hedi) Ehrenberg, (1891–1972), (m. 1913–1970, his death)
Children: 3, including Gustav Victor Rudolf Born

About Max Born

Famous physicist and mathematician, who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He was also known for his research into solid-state physics and optics.

Before Fame

He was appointed scribe for his professor, Hilbert, who would become his mentor.


In 1954, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Walther Bothe for his statistical interpretation of the wave function.

Family Life

He got married to Martha E. Hedwig on August 2, 1913 and they had 3 children together.


Another famous mathematician like him was Sir Isaac Newton.

Information related to Max Born

  • German emigrants to Scotland
  • Winners of the Max Planck Medal
  • Scientists from Frankfurt
  • People associated with the University of Zurich
  • Honorary Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences
  • Silesian Jews
  • German Nobel laureates
  • Foreign Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences
  • Goethe University Frankfurt faculty
  • Members of the German Academy of Sciences at Berlin
  • Optical physicists
  • University of Breslau alumni
  • Nobel laureates in Physics
  • Quantum physicists
  • Members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences
  • Jewish physicists
  • Grand Crosses with Star and Sash of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
  • University of Göttingen faculty
  • British physicists
  • Humboldt University of Berlin faculty
  • Theoretical physicists
  • Alumni of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
  • 20th-century physicists
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Latest information about Max Born updated on October 28, 2020.

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