Ludwig Boltzmann

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Date of Birth February 20, 1844
Place of Birth Vienna, Austria
Date of Death Sep 5, 1906 (62)
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Ludwig Boltzmann

Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. His greatest achievement was in the development of statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms determine the physical properties of matter. Boltzmann coined the word ergodic while he was working on a problem in statistical mechanics.

Born: Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann, February 20, 1844, Vienna, Austrian Empire
Died: September 5, 1906, Tybein, Triest, Austria-Hungary, Suicide by hanging
Residence: Austria, Germany
Nationality: Austrian
Fields: Physics
Institutions: University of Graz, University of Vienna, University of Munich, University of Leipzig
Alma mater: University of Vienna
Other academic advisors: Robert Bunsen, Leo Königsberger, Gustav Kirchhoff, Hermann von Helmholtz
Doctoral students: Paul Ehrenfest, Philipp Frank, Gustav Herglotz, Franc Hočevar, Ignacij Klemenčič
Other notable students: Lise Meitner, Stefan Meyer
Known for: Boltzmann constant, Boltzmann equation, Boltzmann distribution, Detailed balance, H-theorem, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Stefan–Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Boltzmann factor, Epistemological idealism
Notable awards: ForMemRS (1899)

About Ludwig Boltzmann

Austrian physicist who developed statistical mechanics, which explains and predicts how the properties of atoms determine the physical properties of matter. In 1903 he co-founded the Austrian Mathematical Society.

Before Fame

He became a professor of mathematical physics at the University of Graz when he was twenty-five.


He invented the Boltzmann Equation, which described an ideal gas.

Family Life

He got married to Henriette von Aigentler on July 17, 1876 and had three daughters and two sons together.


Another famous physicist like him was Max Born.

Information related to Ludwig Boltzmann

  • Energetics - Energetics is the study of energy under transformation. Because energy flows at all scales, from the quantum level to the biosphere and cosmos, energetics is a very broad discipline, encompassing for example thermodynamics, chemistry, biological energetics, biochemistry and ecological energetics.
  • Boltzmann brain - The Boltzmann brain argument suggests that it is more likely for a single brain to spontaneously and briefly form in a void than it is for our universe to have come about in the way modern science thinks it actually did.
  • Rectors of universities in Austria
  • Mathematicians who committed suicide
  • Thermodynamicists
  • Austrian physicists
  • Burials at the Vienna Central Cemetery
  • Mathematical physicists
  • Scientists from Vienna
  • Corresponding Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences
  • Fluid dynamicists
  • Members of the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
  • Theoretical physicists
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Latest information about Ludwig Boltzmann updated on October 30, 2020.

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